Vince Palamara- author of "Survivor's Guilt" and "JFK: From Parkland to Bethesda"

Vince Palamara- author of "Survivor's Guilt" and "JFK: From Parkland to Bethesda"
Vince Palamara- author of "Survivor's Guilt" and "JFK: From Parkland to Bethesda"

Vince Palamara: author of two books

Vince Palamara: author of two books
Vince Palamara- author of two books


“The Kennedy Detail” repeats constantly an alleged Kennedy quote about "Ivy League charlatans" that the author tries to convince (brainwash?) the reader into taking what was simply an off-hand quote/joke by JFK and turn it into a proclamation of strict procedure protocol-an astute comment from a reader



President Kennedy's Secret Service White House Detail +

President Kennedy's Secret Service White House Detail +
President Kennedy's Secret Service White House Detail + various other important/ temp/ PRS agents, as compiled from the massive collection of the leading authority on the Secret Service, especially during the JFK era: Vince Palamara

Secret Service JFK

Secret Service JFK
Various JFK era agents

Secret Service JFK

Secret Service, JFK, President Kennedy, James Rowley, Gerald Behn, Floyd Boring, Roy Kellerman, John Campion, William Greer, Forest Sorrels, Clint Hill, Winston Lawson, Emory Roberts, Sam Kinney, Paul Landis, John "Jack" Ready, William "Tim" McIntyre, Glenn Bennett, George Hickey, Rufus Youngblood, Warren "Woody" Taylor, Jerry Kivett, Lem Johns, John "Muggsy" O'Leary, Sam Sulliman, Ernest Olsson, Robert Steuart, Richard Johnsen, Stewart "Stu" Stout, Roger Warner, Henry "Hank" Rybka, Donald Lawton, Dennis Halterman, Walt Coughlin, Andy Berger, Ron Pontius, Bert de Freese, Jim Goodenough, Bill Duncan, Ned Hall II, Mike Howard, Art Godfrey, Gerald Blaine, Ken Giannoules, Paul Burns, Gerald O'Rourke, Robert Faison, David Grant, John Joe Howlett, Bill Payne, Robert Burke, Frank Yeager, Donald Bendickson, Gerald Bechtle, Howard Norton, Hamilton Brown, Toby Chandler, Chuck Zboril, Joe Paolella, Wade Rodham, Bob Foster, Lynn Meredith, Rad Jones, Thomas Wells, Charlie Kunkel, Stu Knight, Paul Rundle, Glen Weaver, Arnie Lau, Forrest Guthrie, Eve Dempsher, Bob Lilley, Ken Wiesman, Mike Mastrovito, Tony Sherman, Larry Newman, Morgan Gies, Tom Shipman, Ed Tucker, Harvey Henderson, Abe Bolden, Robert Kollar, Ed Mougin, Mac Sweazey, Horace "Harry" Gibbs, Tom Behl, Jim Cantrell, Bill Straughn, Tom Fridley, Mike Kelly, Joe Noonan, Gayle Dobish, Earl Moore, Arthur Blake, John Lardner, Milt Wilhite, Bill Skiles, Louis Mayo, Thomas Wooge, Milt Scheuerman, Talmadge Bailey, Bob Lapham, Bob Newbrand, Bernie Mullady, Jerry Dolan, Vince Mroz, William Bacherman, Howard Anderson, U.E. Baughman, Walt Blaschak, Robert Bouck, George Chaney, William Davis, Paul Doster, Dick Flohr, Jack Fox, John Giuffre, Jim Griffith, Jack Holtzhauer, Andy Hutch, Jim Jeffries, John Paul Jones, Kent Jordan, Dale Keaner, Brooks Keller, Thomas Kelley, Clarence Knetsch, Jackson Krill, Elmer Lawrence, Bill Livingood, J. Leroy Lewis, Dick Metzinger, Jerry McCann, John McCarthy, Ed Morey, Chester Miller, Roy "Gene" Nunn, Jack Parker, Paul Paterni, Burrill Peterson, Max Phillips, Walter Pine, Michael Shannon, Frank Stoner, Cecil Taylor, Charles Taylor, Bob Taylor, Elliot Thacker, Ken Thompson, Mike Torina, Jack Walsh, Jack Warner, Thomas White, Ed Wildy, Carroll Winslow, Dale Wunderlich, Walter Young, Winston Gintz, Bill Carter, C. Douglas Dillon, James Johnson, Larry Hess, Frank Farnsworth, Jim Giovanneti,Bob Gaugh,Don Brett, Jack Gleason, Bob Jamison, Gary Seale, Bill Sherlock, Bob Till, Doc Walters...

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Saturday, April 23, 2011

Emory Roberts: THE REAL STORY

Agent Emory P. Roberts (ATSAIC, Commander of the Secret Service follow-up car): A native of Cockeysville, Maryland, Roberts had previously served with the Maryland State Police, the Baltimore County Police, and as an investigator for the Office of Price Administration.28 Secret Service agent Emory P. Roberts was also a high school colleague of author Howard Donahue of Mortal Error fame.29 Roberts was appointed to the Secret Service in January 1944, in Baltimore, and also served in the Washington field office before joining the White House Detail during the Truman era.30 Roberts was awarded the Exceptional Civilian Service
Award for outstanding service while protecting Richard M. Nixon, then Presi-dent Eisenhower’s Vice President, in June, 1958, in Caracas, Venezuela.31
Former agent Darwin Horn, who served with Roberts on the White House Detail during the Eisenhower years, wrote: “Emory Roberts was a very fine accom-plished agent. He was the number three man on Bill Shields’ shift behind Pat Boggs. He was a very congenial well-liked agent who was always available to assist younger agents. I do not know from what office he had come from when he rejoined the WHD in about 1955.”32 Former WHD agent Charles J. Marass wrote: “Regarding Emory Roberts, he was a very competent, conscientious, dedicated, honorable person and agent. He was the Shift Leader that I was as-signed to during my duty at the White House Detail. Emory was so concerned about those on his shift we affectionately referred to him as our ‘Mother Hen’. Emory performed his duties in a most professional manner.”33
Roberts had been on President Kennedy’s trip to Florida on November 18, 1963. As he was later to do on the fateful Texas trip, Mr. Roberts served as the commander of the agents in the follow-up car, one of two well-used 1956 Cadillac convertibles that sometimes served as the presidential limousine (an example is provided in JFK’s Summer, 1963, Ireland trip34). On both trips, Sam Kinney served as the driver of this car.35 As one of three Shift Leaders of the White House Detail (the other two were Stewart G. Stout, Jr. and Arthur L. Godfrey, both also on the Texas trip with Roberts),36 Emory was a stern and forceful agent who took and gave out orders in a serious manner while working on President Kennedy’s trips. It was during the Florida trip that some interesting things involving Agent Roberts occurred which would have a direct bearing on November 22, 1963.
The President visited Palm Beach, Cape Canaveral, Miami, and Tampa on No-vember 18, 1963. As agents Chuck Zboril and Don Lawton were riding on the rear of the limousine in Tampa, someone from the crowd threw a red “Power-house” candy bar at the motorcade, and the confection landed with a “thud” on the hood of the Secret Service follow-up car. Thinking it to be a lethal stick of dynamite, Agent Roberts pushed the object forcefully off the hood. Realizing what the object really was, Roberts and the other agents shared a laugh about it.37 But they had had good reason to be jumpy: the atmosphere in Tampa (and Miami) was one that gave the agents cause for concern: hostility from the anti-Castro Cuban community, the Joseph Milteer threat, and an organized crime-related scare.38 As he had done countless times before, Mr. Roberts had the two agents that were riding on the rear of the presidential limousine “fall back” from time to time (sometimes based on Special Agent in Charge Jerry Behn’s suggestion; in this case it was the number two agent, Assistant Special Agent in Charge Floyd Boring). This was quite often a spur-of-the-moment decision based on the speed of the cars, the size and proximity of the crowd, and the po-tential for threat(s) at the moment (often, the two agents on the rear of JFK’s limousine took their own initiative in going between the two cars, as agent Clint Hill did several times in Dallas).39 This will become important later.
Jumping ahead to Dallas on November 22, 1963, (after friendly, enthusiastic, and uneventful motorcades in San Antonio, Houston, and Fort Worth on November 21–22, 1963), Agent Roberts assigned the other seven agents on his particular shift to the follow-up car: Sam Kinney, Clint Hill, Paul Landis, Wil-liam “Tim” McIntyre, Glen Bennett, George Hickey, and John Ready40—four of whom had only hours before participated in the infamous drinking incident in Fort Worth. Mr. Roberts’ shift was the worst offender of the three shifts!41 What makes this even more tragic is that Roberts had the most important shift of all: the 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. shift—the Fort Worth/Dallas part of the Texas trip. (The other two shifts—Agent Stout’s 4:00 p.m. to midnight detail, and Agent Godfrey’s midnight to 8:00 a.m. shift—were not actively protecting JFK during the Dallas motorcade. They were all waiting for JFK to complete the motor-cade—Stout’s detail at the Trade Mart, Godfrey’s detail in Austin with Bob Burke and Bill Payne at both the Commodore-Perry Hotel and the LBJ Ranch.)
Cover-up number one: Agent Roberts would later write (April 28, 1964): “There was no question in my mind as to [the agents’] physical and mental capacity to function effectively in their assigned duties.”42 Like Chief Rowley and Inspector Kelley before both the Warren Commission and the HSCA, Agent Roberts covered up the drinking incident, despite Secret Service regulations that clearly stated that these were grounds for removal from the agency.43 Sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption wreak havoc on even the best-trained reflexes. While leaving Love Field on the way to the heart of Dallas, destiny, and murder, Agent Roberts rose from his seat and, using his voice and several hand gestures, forced agent Donald Lawton to fall back from the rear area of JFK’s limousine, causing a perplexed Lawton to stop and raise his arms several times in disgust. Lawton would then remain at the airport during the murder, having been effec-tively neutralized: although Paul Landis made room for him on the right run-ning board of the follow-up car, Agent Lawton did not budge.44 Despite the fact that Lawton AND Rybka had worked the follow-up in Houston the day before45 and were experienced46 protective agents,47 he was not allowed to do his job on Novem-ber 22, 1963. (Rybka has since died.) Agent Rybka, fresh from Secret Service School and the Florida trip, both in November, 1963,48 knew what the standard procedure was, both through training and seeing with his own two eyes: to have agents on or near the rear of the presidential limousine.
Cover-up number two: Both Emory Roberts and Winston Lawson placed Agent Rybka in the follow-up car in their (initial) reports, only to “correct” the record later, after November 22, although Rybka was not even mentioned anywhere in Agent Lawson’s Preliminary Survey Report to begin with—making it seem obvi-ous that Lawson was covering for Emory Roberts.49 Incredibly, Emory Roberts made the same “mistake” twice: In the shift report of November 22, 1963 (separate from the one depicted in the Commission’s volumes),50 Roberts placed Ry-bka in the “center rear seat” between Hickey and Bennett!51 Oddly, this was not the first time Rybka was “mistakenly” replaced in the follow-up car during No-vember 1963. The shift report of November 9, 1963, written by agent David Grant, stated that Rybka drove the follow-up car in New York.52 The problem is that Rybka was actually left behind in Washington, D.C. at the time, as the November 8 and 9 shift reports make abundantly clear.53 Bizarre indeed.
As the cars approached the Main and Houston Street intersection, Clint Hill fell back to the follow-up car. Agent Hill was the only agent to ride on the rear of the limousine in Dallas and he was not even assigned to JFK (as a last-minute addition to the trip, Agent Hill was, like Paul Landis, part of Jackie’s detail, and came at the First Lady’s personal request). John Ready, the agent assigned to President Kennedy’s side of the limousine and riding on the right front running board of the follow-up car, never approached JFK’s side of the limousine. Why not? Emory Roberts lamely explained: “SA Ready would have done the same thing (as Agent Hill did) if the motorcycle was not at the President’s corner of car.”54 Strange, but this posed no problem at all for Agent Don Lawton on No-vember 18, 1963, in Tampa55 (but unfortunately, like Rybka, Lawton was left at Love Field and was not in the motorcade detail).56 In any event, there was al-ways cooperation between the motorcycles and the agents; they maneuvered around each other countless times, including in Dallas on November 22, 1963.
Cover-up number three: The infamous April 22, 1964 reports from Agents Behn, Boring, Ready, Hill, and Emory Roberts, alleging, after-the-fact, that President Kennedy had ordered agents off the rear of the limousine on November 18, 1963 in Tampa, and in other cities.57 As previously discussed in detail, the Secret Ser-vice blamed JFK for the removal of the agents on or near the rear of his limou-sine and this is simply untrue. Although Agent Roberts admitted recognizing “Oswald’s” first shot as a rifle blast,58 as the Altgens photo confirms, he made a mysterious transmission via radio microphone that is not accounted for in his reports or in the official record.59 Instead of offering a shout of alarm, alert, or orders to his agents to do something that their own initiative lacked for some reason, i.e., protective action, he did nothing to help the wounded President. Allen Dulles of the Warren Commission asked: “Who would cover straight ahead?” Chief Rowley responded: “The man in the front seat [unnamed: Rob-erts] has that responsibility.”60 None of the follow-up car agents, via their indi-vidual scanning duties, which had them actually looking away from JFK and at different points of the crowd, had the responsibility of watching only the presi-dential vehicle. That job belonged to Roberts alone, and it appears obvious that the other agents of the follow-up car relied heavily on Roberts to sound some sort of alarm in the event of trouble in JFK’s car. Roberts’ recall of Agent Ready is well documented,61 although we still have:
Cover-up number four: The alleged speed of the limousine and the alleged dis-tance between the two cars (9–11 mph and five feet in reality, not the 20–25 mph and 20–25 feet stated in both Roberts’ and Agent Ready’s reports) was used as the pretext for the recall of Ready.62 Taking everything cited to this point into account, there is still another factor that has escaped virtually every-one, and this “factor” came about quite accidentally. In Groden and Living-stone’s High Treason,63 it was noted: “Emory Roberts ordered the agents not to move,” which this author took to be an unintended overstatement at the time. So, the author decided to read the passage to Sam Kinney for commentary. Surprisingly, Sam told the author, “Exactly right, and I’m involved in that, too!” Before the author could digest this troubling information, Sam attempted to de-fend Roberts’ actions by stating that the angle of the follow-up car he was driv-ing wasn’t conducive to any of the other agents taking action (as Hill did), an excuse the author does not find valid. Kinney told a similar story to the HSCA on February 26, 1978: “Mr. Kinney’s analysis of Roberts’ order was that if Rob-erts had permitted Ready to go, and ‘if Ready had done what Hill did, I’ve got one of them,’ i.e. because of the impossibility of swerving away at an angle wide enough to avoid both of them.” However, the Nix film (as well as the Zapruder film) demonstrates that, during the shooting, the follow-up car had slowed down, lagging somewhat behind the presidential limousine. Therefore, Kinney’s car—and JFK’s car, for that matter—wasn’t quite close enough or moving fast enough to create the hazard Kinney eludes to. Ironically, if the required five-foot distance between the vehicles had been maintained (as it had been up to right before the shooting), not to mention a faster rate of speed, Kinney would be on firmer ground. In addition, Agent Tim McIntyre told the HSCA on January 31, 1978 that the follow-up car was “slightly to the left rear of the limousine”, so, if anything, Hill was in more danger than Ready when he took off to protect Mrs. Kennedy.
So, besides the Love Field recall of Agent lawton and Dealey Plaza recall of Ready, Roberts also immobilized the other agents at a critical juncture in the shooting, causing a non-JFK agent (Clint Hill) to react too late to do anything but cover the corpse of the President.64 HSCA attorney Belford Lawson also was troubled by Roberts’ conduct: he wrote in a once-secret memorandum: “Why [wasn’t] Emory Roberts … called to testify?”65
Presidential aides Ken O’Donnell and Dave Powers best summed up the situa-tion when they wrote: “Roberts, one of President Kennedy’s agents … had decided to switch to Johnson as soon as Kennedy was shot.”66 In addition, four other authors have noted Agent Roberts’ “switch of allegiance”, including Chief Curry.67 Once at Parkland Hospital, SA Roberts totally usurped his superior, number-three agent Roy Kellerman. Emory ordered Kellerman’s agents around and confided in Rufus Youngblood, the soon-to-be SAIC, replacing the absent Behn.68 What William Manchester reports as having occurred at Parkland makes one both sick and repulsed: “… Powers and O’Donnell bounded toward the Lincoln. Powers heard Emory Roberts shouting at him to stop but disre-garded him; a second might save Kennedy’s life [Dave, too bad you weren’t on the running board of the follow-up car] … Emory Roberts brushed past O’Don-nell, determined to make sure that Kennedy was dead. ‘Get up,’ he said to Jac-queline Kennedy. There was no reply. She was crooning faintly. From his side Roberts could see the President’s face, so he lifted her elbow for a close look. He dropped it. To Kellerman, his superior, he said tersely, ‘You stay with Kennedy. I’m going to Johnson.’ ”69
It is a shame that Emory Roberts cannot enlighten us on his conduct: having never been questioned by the Warren Commission or the FBI, he died on Octo-ber 8, 1973 at his Brookeville, Maryland home, after an apparent heart attack. Roberts was 58 at the time.70 Only author William Manchester spoke to him (on December 4, 1964 and April 26, 1965, respectively).71 Incredibly, Roberts was the President’s receptionist during the Johnson administration while still a member of the Secret Service, receiving a Special Service Award from the Treas-ury Department for improving communications and services to the public in 1968;72 a year later, during the start of the Nixon administration in 1969, Rob-erts was promoted to the coveted position of Inspector at Secret Service head-quarters, responsible for overseeing a number of protective procedures and policies. Roberts retired from the Secret Service in February 1973.73

In keeping with the above comments, the author has traced the critical decision to have LBJ and Kennedy’s coffin aboard Air Force One (instead of Air Force Two) back to the primary source: Emory Roberts.74 “Official” history has it that Kenny O’Donnell specifically told Lyndon Johnson to take the presidential plane—Air Force One—rather than Air Force Two because it allegedly had better communication equipment. This is what LBJ alleged in his Warren Commission affidavit.75 However, O’Donnell denied this, telling author William Manchester: “The President and I had no conversation regarding Air Force One. If we had known he was going on Air Force One, we would have taken Air Force Two. One plane was like the other.”76 In fact, when Arlen Specter of the Warren Commis-sion asked O’Donnell, “Was there any discussion about his [LBJ] taking the presidential plane, AF–1, as opposed to AF–2?”, O’Donnell responded: “There was not.”77 In this regard, O’Donnell later wrote in his book Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye that a Warren Commission attorney—the aforementioned Arlen Spec-ter—asked him to “change his testimony so that it would agree with the Presi-dent’s”: an offer O’Donnell refused.78 With this in mind, author Jim Bishop re-ported: “Emory Roberts suggested that Johnson leave at once for Air Force One … Roberts asked Kenny O’Donnell and he said: ‘Yes.’ Johnson refused to move. Roberts returned to O’Donnell and asked again: ‘Is it all right for Mr. Johnson to board Air Force One now?’ ‘Yes,’ O’Donnell said, ‘Yes.’ ”79 [Emphasis added.] This author believes O’Donnell when he says he had no part in LBJ going to Air Force One over Air Force Two. This was a Secret Service (Emory Roberts) decision.
Finally, back to the subject of allegiance, Manchester wrote: “The Secret Ser-vice … was riven by disunion. The agents were as leaderless and perplexed as the rest of the Presidential party [on November 22, 1963]. A few (Kellerman, Hill) remained near Kennedy. Others (Youngblood, Roberts, Johns) went with John-son. Most were following personal loyalties.”80 [Emphasis added.]
Roberts’ White House Communications Agency (WHCA) code name was “Dusty”.81
Even former agent Abraham Bolden was shocked at Roberts’ conduct.82
Conclusion: Emory Roberts is a major suspect in both the security test and the murder itself.

28 The Washington Post, October 11, 1973; Manchester, p. 165.
29 Author’s interview with Howard Donahue, September 23, 1992.
30 The Washington Post, October 11, 1973; David Clark, Archivist, Harry S. Truman Library and Museum: Reathel M. Odum Papers, Box 10. Odum was Secretary to Mrs. Truman: 1945–53.
31 The Washington Post, October 11, 1973. A picture of Roberts protecting Nixon in Ca-racas can be found in Gregory Matusky and John P. Hayes, Know Your Government: The U.S. Secret Service, p. 36.
32 Email to author dated February 27, 2004.
33 Letter to author dated March 25, 2004.
34 From the videotape presentations Kennedy’s Ireland and JFK: A Celebration of his Life and Times (the vehicle had the D.C. license plate number GG–678).
35 Author’s interviews with Sam Kinney during October 1992 and March–April 1994.
36 Author’s interview with Art Godfrey (who guarded JFK at the Hotel Texas in Fort Worth on the evening of November 21, 1963, and was waiting for the President in Austin when the assassination occurred; for his part, Agent Stoutalso protected President Truman during the assassination attempt at Blair House in 1950—along with Floyd Boring). Their designation was ATSAIC: Assistant to the Special Agent in Charge, a position right below the ASAICs.
37 Author’s interviews with Kinney (April 15, 1994) and Agent Don Lawton (Novem-ber 15, 1995). See also Lamar Waldron, Ultimate Sacrifice (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005), p. 691.
38 Peter Dale Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK. See also Gaeton Fonzi, The Last Investigation (New York: Thunder’s Mouth, 1993); author’s interviews with Robert Bouck, September 27, 1992; author’s interviews with Sam Kinney. HSCA document 180–10074–10394, an interview with agent Robert J. Jamison, states: “The threat of November 18, 1963 was posed by a mobile, unidentified rifleman with a high-powered rifle fitted with a scope.” In addition, HSCA document 180–10083–10419, an interview with Lubert F. deFreese, states: “A threat did surface in connection with the Miami trip.”
39 Author’s interviews with: Jerry Behn (three on September 27, 1992); Robert Bouck (September 27, 1992); and Bob Lilley (three interviews).
40 18 H 738. Agent John Ready may have also been mentally occupied: according to the Secret Service shift reports released by the ARRB in the late 1990s, an “emergency leave” took Ready out of the White House detail from November 15–19, 1963, missing the entire Florida trip (as verified by USSS RIF#1541–0001–10081), although Ready claimed during his March 1, 1978 HSCA interview that he arrived in Miami on No-vember 18, 1963 for the Florida trip with JFK, then went home upon being advised of a death in his family. Although he did go back on duty November 21, in time for the Texas trip, he did not ride in the follow-up car in San Antonio, Houston, or Fort Worth on November 21, 1963.
41 18 H 665–702. Agents Hill, Ready, Landis, and Bennett were the guilty parties on Roberts’ shift.
42 18 H 679.
43 18 H 665.
44 WFAA–TV (ABC’s Dallas affiliate) on November 22, 1963; 25 H 787; video shown on The Men Who Killed Kennedy, 2003, by the author. While SA Lawton states categori-cally in his November 30, 1963 report that “… my instructions were to remain at the airport to effect security for the President’s departure”, Agent Rybka’s very brief, vague, and undated report contains no such disclaimer. Rybka’s report is by far the briefest of the 29 reports submitted to Chief Rowley and the Warren Commission. Many of the agents submitted two (or more) reports, a good percentage of which were multi-page reports and with some detail, not to mention a proper date somewhere on the report.
45 Advance man Jerry Bruno’s notes from the JFK Library in Boston. Agent Henry Ry-bka was also on the follow-up car team in San Antonio on November 21, 1963. In ad-dition, the newly-released Cooper film depicts Rybka jumping out of the follow-up car in Fort Worth on November 22, 1963—he was the first agent out of the car. On two of the three stops, Rybka was not the driver.
46 Rybka was a member of the detail during at least the latter Eisenhower years: Protec-tive Survey Report dated January 16, 1961: Re: Inaugural Activities of the President on January 20, 1961, conducted by SAIC James M. Beary (1–15 [Washington Field Office]) and SA H. S. Knight (1–16 [WHD]).
47 Kellerman, 2 H 69: “Each agent carries his own gun. This is a four-inch revolver on their person.” See also Hill, 2 H 134.
48 Secret Service shift reports, November 1963.
49 18 H 739; 17 H 593–600: Lawson’s Preliminary Survey Report (dated MNovember 19, 1963); 17 H 601–617: Lawson’s Final Survey Report.
50 18 H 739.
51 USSS RIF#1541–0001–10031.
52 USSS RIF#1541–0001–10127.
53 USSS RIF#1541–0001–10132, 1541–0001–10125.
54 18 H 738.
55 Cecil Stoughton photos from the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston; author’s inter-views with agents Don Lawton and Chuck Zboril (November 1995).
56 25 H 786.
57 18 H 803–9.
58 18 H 734–5; Manchester, p. 155. Manchester did interview Emory Roberts twice (p. 667).
59 18 H 735–9: The first transmission was made a full minute before the shooting, while the other was made after the shooting.
60 5 H 453.
61 18 H 749–750; also p. 734. Manchester, pp. 155–6, 165.
62 Roberts’ and Ready’s reports, CD 3 Exhibits.
63 High Treason, pp. 14, 417.
64 Hill also described the President’s skull defect as located in the “right rear” with the actual missing piece of skull lying in the back of the car. This was confirmed by Agent Sam Kinney to the author on two occasions.
65 RIF#180–10093–10320: May 31, 1977 Memorandum from HSCA’s Belford Lawson to fellow HSCA members Gary Cornwell and Ken Klein (revised August 15, 1977).
66 Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye, p. 34.
67 Manchester, pp. 165, 175; Curry, pp. 36–37; Hepburn, Farewell America, p. 229; The Flying White House, p. 215.
68 Manchester, pp. 170, 175–6, 233.
69 Manchester, pp. 170, 232–3; author’s interviews with Kinney and Boring in March and April 1994. See also Bishop, p. 195. The Texas trip was apparently Kellerman’s first major, multi-stop trip on his own in a supervisory capacity, for the November 8 and 9 shift reports place Kellerman in New York (without Agents Behn or Boring). However, this was not the more publicized trip that JFK made to the same city a few days later (November 14 and 15 with Floyd Boring, who was also on the Elkton, Maryland and Florida trips around this same time period). Evidently, the President made a low-key trip—that even advance agent Godfrey couldn’t remember (see Chap-ter 2)—to New York before the New York City trip that was well covered in the media. This first New York trip, for all intents and purposes, was unknown to researchers today until the author “discovered” it (in contrast to the infamous second New York
trip). Also, no motorcade was involved on the first trip, an important distinction from the second New York trip, days later.
70 The Washington Post, October 11, 1973. Agent Rex Scouten to author (letter received Septmber 1998): “Emory Roberts, a very good friend of mine, died in the late ’60s as I recall [actually October 8, 1973]—returned home from work one afternoon—laid down on the bed and suffered a major heart attack—and died.”
71 Manchester, p. 667.
72 The Washington Post, October 11, 1973.
73 Ibid.
74 Manchester, pp. 232–5; Bishop, pp. 199, 200, 244, 247, 249; A Woman Called Jackie, p. 403; 18 H 736; 2 H 152; 5 H 562–3.
75 5 H 563.
76 Jim Marrs, Crossfire, pp. 296–7. See also Bishop, p. 259, and Manchester, pp. 234–5.
77 7 H 451. See also Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye, pp. 35, 38.
78 Marrs, p. 297. In fact, as noted by researcher David Starks in his 1994 video The In-vestigations, while Specter’s name appears in the hardcover version of O’Donnell’s book, it was deleted from the mass-market paperback (p. 41)!
79 Bishop, p. 244.
80 Manchester, p. 176.
81 Ibid., p. xxi.
82 Author’s interview with Bolden, September 16, 1993.

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